VOICES FROM THE PAST
One would think that everyone would earnestly seek to be a Christian.
The proudest and dearest thing this side of eternity is to be able to say “I know Jesus as my Lord and Saviour”.
All who have believed in the Gospel (1 Corinthians 15:1- 4) and asked Jesus into their hearts by the gift of faith can know their natural spirit has been born again. They are recreated by the infilling of God’s Holy Spirit and this most assuredly, is the finest and most important event in the whole of their lives.
Once we have taken up the baton of our faith it proceeds to enhance the value of all temporal enjoyment and it adds many new and inestimable comforts of its own.
True Christianity, its real progress in the world and in the hearts of individuals, is marked with the most beneficial effects. Every Christian who truly loves his Lord should have a fervent desire to see the message of the gospel promoted, and its heavenly influence enlarged and extended.
The heart of every true Christian should be moved by an overwhelming desire to bring glory to God by disseminating peace and goodwill among men. Further, his whole heart should thrill with any opportunity to love and support any brother and sister in prayer who would set forth to proclaim the Good News. The means by which this is effected has been the written word, preaching of the gospel and the operations of the Spirit, concurring with the dispersions of Divine Providence.
I value the truth that is in Jesus and earnestly would wish its universal diffusion and the united conformity of all mankind to its heavenly dictates. I would most assuredly, seek to present a view (not to oppose any work of the Holy Spirit) but to promote a spirit of inquiry and of rational devotion to the word of God.
In reprehending opinions and practices which I have viewed to be erroneous, I have endeavoured to be plain, firm and steadfast, yet moderate; and to be honest and painstaking in my endeavours to research all materials with an open mind. Nonetheless, I have felt that a directness of language has been required due to the fact that my findings have proved to be of considerable concern. As a consequence of Christianity being invaded by the New Age Movement and its gospel of oneness in religion, government and the economy.
I take comfort that I know the Lord Jesus sometimes, in cases of obstinate and perverse sin, made use of severity of language. However, for the most part his instructions and exhortations were mild and inviting. He endeavoured to represent God to his sinful and needy creatures in the way he longed for all to know him.
In attending to extensive research into many revivals down through the centuries, it is clear that the varied effects, at some periods, and in some places, were more evident and more extensive than at others.
It is clear every movement or “excitement”, which may occurred at different times and in different places have been called by varied names; “religious stirs, blessings, awakenings of the Spirit and outpourings of the Spirit” and should not to be too hastily ascribed to the Spirit of God or operations of divine grace upon the heart.
These ”religious stirs”, as they were called, sometimes appear to originate in circumstances, to say the least, doubtful and suspicious and were and are today frequently carried on in a way, and by means, which I apprehend are not warranted by Scripture. It is apparent their effects leave it very doubtful, whether any real and lasting advantages have been produced.”
The hope generally, by all writers, was there would be a more valuable effect of these “stirs” in that, it might have the effect, to lead many persons to examine more carefully the nature of the Christian faith, its doctrines and worship. It has been observed this was not necessarily the situation where excesses were prevalent.
I quote from: “The Great Revival in the West 1797-1805” by Catherine Cleveland:
“The effects of these camp-meetings were of a mixed nature. They were doubtless attended for improper purposes by a few licentious persons, and by others with a view to obtaining a handle to ridicule all religion…… The free intercourse of all ages and sexes, under cover of the night, and the woods, was not without its temptations.
It was also to be feared they gave rise to false notions of religion, by laying too much stress on bodily exercises, and substituting them in place of moral virtues or inward piety. These were too often considered as evidences of a change of heart and affections, though neither proved anything of the kind.
After every deduction is made of these varied accounts, it must be acknowledged that any good resulting from these well documented “camp-meetings” varied. Where powerful preaching of the Word, explicit in the preachers ability to describe the effects of hell and the final destiny for all those who refused to believe and repent, brought about terrible effects upon the autonomic nervous system. Those effects resulted in unbelievers prostrating themselves in fear on their faces and shaking, trembling, sobbing and crying out that God would deliver them from their sin-riddled condition. Nonetheless we must question whether they had received the Gospel (1 Corinthians 15:1-4) which must be believed by faith through God’s grace plus nothing for extra-biblical experiences will not save a single soul.
15 Now, brothers and sisters, I want to remind you of the gospel I preached to you, which you received and on which you have taken your stand. 2 By this gospel you are saved, if you hold firmly to the word I preached to you. Otherwise, you have believed in vain.
3 For what I received I passed on to you as of first importance[a]: that Christ died for our sins according to the Scriptures, 4 that he was buried, that he was raised on the third day according to the Scriptures,
The documented evidence as to the nature of other meetings, such as that of Azusa Street, were clearly a work of the evil one and confirmed as such by Charles Parham (the father of Pentecostalism) and his team who had carried the extravagances of their work of “Revival” based on their own interpretation of the “baptism in the Spirit” confirmed by speaking in other tongues.
It is interesting to consider the nature of those Revivals:-
“Another extraordinary case occurred at the very moment of departure. Two men disputing, one for, the other against the work, referred their contest to a clergyman of responsibility, who happened to be passing that way. He immediately took the hand of the unbeliever, and thus addressed him: “If you were, in your hearts desire, to wait on the means of grace, God would show you the truth. You may expect mercy to visit you, but remember, my hand, for it, it will cost you something; a stroke would not now come at a (successless) hour.
Scarcely had the words dropped from his lips, when the man was on the ground, pleading for an interest in the Kingdom of Heaven, and begging pardon of God for his dishonouring him and the cause of religion through unbelief in the Gospel.
Two other men who had been in the crowd, where many were lying under the operations of the work, attempted to run off. One, leaving his hat in haste, ran about twenty or thirty paces, and fell on his face. his shrieks declared the terror and anguish under which he laboured.
The number of those stricken could not be ascertained. But I believe it to be much greater than any one would conceive….. The multitude on this occasion far exceeded anything which had come under my observation.
There were various conjectures of the numbers present, some four, some three, some seven, some eight thousand. But I do not candidly believe five thousand would not be a vague conjecture….. Men of information who resided therein, said that the country would appear almost depopulated….”43.
The Great Revival it is said, was the result of a combination of causes, some clearly defined and others so interwoven with the general history of the period, that it is impossible to catch more than a suggestion of their outlines.
Neither did it appear to be the result of a carefully planned campaign on the part of any denomination or denominations. However, there is a suggestion, that where the movement was simultaneous, there was a working of uniformity, in adherence to the work, even though different denominations were participating.
There was a combination of those such as the Presbyterians who laid a great stress upon an educated ministry with an intellectual atmosphere in their services, which was quite apart from their everyday life. Stiff, technical theology made little impression upon the heart of those addressed. Young people were not encouraged to approach the communion table and there was nothing further to attract them.
The Baptists went completely the other way in the West in their opposition to education. Whilst in Virginia and other states there was a fervent hatred of the established church.
Amongst all of this The Methodist Society from its inception placed its emphasis, on personal religion. The poor were despised by society in general and yet it seems there were those who were filled with a sense of necessity of correlating, at least in some measure, profession and life. For the Methodist, religion was something that had to be experienced and felt and the emotions played the major part of their public worship.
In considering the varied phenomena, the methods employed, were to evoke within the psyche of the listener, terror of Almighty God, and thus produce severe hysterical reactions such as we have witnessed in the Toronto Blessing.
As explained in an earlier chapter Hysteria is more specifically described as involving
“the autonomic nervous system, which regulates the involuntary activity of glands, smooth muscle and cardiac muscle, and parasympathetic systems, which have generally opposing actions and which derive respectively, from the thoracolumbar and cranio sacral parts of the nervous system which bring about chemical changes with the brain.”
Examples of exaltation, excitement and ecstasy are words that have been used to describe the experiences of mystics throughout the ages whose experiences were too great or deep to be put into words.
It is one thing to describe concrete objective phenomena in words but quite another matter to try and explain an overwhelming experience of beauty – that almost indescribable feeling/experience of the love of God and for God, figures in three differing accounts which I have gleaned from “Religious Experience and Research Unit” – noting sensory and behavioural elements. The first account reads as follows:-
“On the last evening of the Convention three of us set out, about 10.15 pm for a walk through a small wood which led to a village on the other side.
N. One of the party started to tell the story of his life…. he had missed the influence of home, and fell into bad company, unable to resist temptation.
As N. finished his story there was a silence –
I sat with my eyes closed, wondering how I, as one of the convention leaders, could help the young fellow. What happened next was over in a very short space of time.
Breaking through the silence, and crashing through the darkness with tremendous power came my voice:
“In the name of the Lord Jesus Christ depart.”
Immediately N. let out a half-shout, and fell towards me. He said afterwards, ‘At those words “In the name of the Lord Jesus Christ” I saw a black form appear from somewhere at my feet and vanish into the wood, and, at the same time, something indescribable left me’…
It seemed as if horrifying pandemonium had been let loose; as if all the powers of Hell were concentrated in that spot in the wood. I saw numbers of black shapes, blacker than the night, moving about and seeking to come between myself and N. who was gripping hard. I saw three demon spirits, perhaps more, between …..
“Pray N.” I called to him, but the poor fellow could do nothing but sob.
With my hands on his shoulders I cried: “The blood of Jesus Christ cleanseth from all sin.” Again and again I repeated the phrase.
I did not notice T. was silent until he said: “What a horrible atmosphere.”
“Pray, T.” I commanded, “pray with us.” Together we cried with a loud voice “The blood of Jesus Christ cleanseth from all sin.”
Then, after a pause, in a colossal voice, such as I have never heard before or since, came a verse from Scripture through my lips in terrifying power. The words forced out of my mouth:
“I give to my sheep eternal life, they shall never perish, neither shall any pluck them out of my hand.”
The feeling of power was immense; the atmosphere was charged with a living presence, impossible to describe. Then everything grew quiet. The air seemed soft and pleasant, as if angel voices were singing, as if a battle had ended, or a great storm had blown itself out.
Quite independently. N. told of how he had seen seven black forms emerge from the trees in the wood, and how he felt power pushing him forward out of my grip.
Suddenly I felt a great joyousness sweeping over me. I use the word “sweeping” because this feeling seemed to do just that. I actually felt it coming from my left and sweeping round and through me, completely engulfing me. I do not know how to describe it. It was not like a wind. But suddenly it was there, and I felt it move around and through me. Great joy was in it. Exaltation might be a better word.”45.
There are 190 such examples in the first of 3000 records and the examples from this collection illustrated the exuberance of the young people caught up in a movement called the Jesus People.
The same enthusiastic spirit of love is manifest by the adherents of other cults such as those who followed the Guru Maharaj Ji known as the Divine Light and for the spirit of “Satsang” – the sharing of the love they believe, “is very deep within every human being.”46.
It is said that the emotional euphoria of the thousands who attended to hear him speak at Alexandra Palace was the nearest thing to the fanatical behaviour at Hitler Youth rallies in Germany in the 1930’s.47.
Another group of people are those who made it clear that they had little or no time for organised religion or Christian beliefs are the following two examples:-
“I had a great feeling of seeing the ivy in the very sharp focus and then the feeling of everything opening out (or a veil being lifted) and a wonderful feeling of freedom (lightness) and a comprehension of everything. It is hard to describe.
I remember feeling exquisitely happy and of saying to myself: “So that is what it is all about!” I cannot say what I saw – it was like infinity and radiance at the same time.
A great inward light seemed to illuminate my thoughts, I experienced a magnificent sensation of arrival. I was filled with joy as though I had just discovered the secret of world peace. I suddenly knew. The odd thing was that I did not know what I knew.”48.
Turning to those whose conviction is of an impersonal Power
“I know that since I concluded some years ago that my mind could not accept a personal God….I seem to have become more aware of this all-pervading power which to me is strength, comfort, joy, goodness etc.
The feeling of that “Power outside myself” has enriched my life but I am too ordinary and selfish to have responded to its deeper implications. I don’t use formal prayers but I find meditation on things like goodness helpful.
Above all, when I walk quietly in the country, I usually seem, in some strange way, to have my “spiritual batteries recharged.”49.
The answer to the question of relationship with the Power beyond the self was in 97 out of 100 cases achieved through prayer.
The Shaker movement
Quite a number of people said to me that religious excesses were experienced by the “Shakers.” The inference being that somehow this knowledge made their experience right. However I found this was to be very far from the truth.
The Encyclopaedia of Parapsychology and Psychical Research” by Arthur S. Berger, JD. and Joyce Berger provided the first brief advices as follows:-
“Otherwise known as the United Society of Believers in Christ’s Second Coming. Called “Shakers” because of their worship in which they toss their heads from side to side with bodies twitching, jerking, and shaking. A branch of the Quakers, their principal tenet is a life of celibacy. The sect does not accept marriage, considers celibacy the more perfect condition and segregates the sexes in separate sections of houses.”50.
This quite extensive work was the first book I picked up when I began my research and I tell you it was this statement that was the initiator to proving that all I had been witnessing was “a great falling away from the truth of God’s Word”. So it was then, that after gaining that little piece of knowledge, I then moved to a work:-
“Compendium of the origin, principles, rules and regulations, government and doctrines of the United Society of Believers in Christ’s second appearing by Evans, Frederick William.”
“About the year 1770, by a special manifestation of Divine light, a testimony of salvation and eternal life was fully revealed to Ann Lee, and by her to the Society, by whom she, from that time, was acknowledged as Mother in Christ.
About the year 1774, Mother Ann received a revelation directing her to repair to America; also that the second Christian Church would be established in America; that the Colonies would gain their independence; and that the liberty of conscience would be secured to all people, whereby they would be able to worship God without hindrance or molestation.
Mother Ann said: “I saw in vision the Lord Jesus in his kingdom and glory. he revealed to me the depths of man’s loss, what it was, and the way of redemption therefrom. Then I was able to bear an open testimony against the sin that is the root of all evil; and I felt the power of God flow into my soul like a fountain of living water. From that day I have been able to take up a full cross against all the doleful works of the devil.”
The facts are that, Mother Ann had four children and the last birth was particularly difficult, a prolonged and traumatic delivery occasioning the use of forceps. From this experience, she made the decision that all sex was sinful and set about living out her belief and encouraged others to do the same.
In order to control sexual passion they whipped each other’s naked bodies to allay their frustrations and this went on for days. During the emotional frenzies that emanated from these diabolical penances, their bodies entered into a state of catalepsy, where they shook, and trembled and writhed and entered into a catatonic state for weeks.
It was believed that Shaker Societies always originated in the spiritual part of a cycle.
They believe that there is first a general agitation of the spiritual elements; out of that they declared that, when all these false systems, of human invention, and all the deceitful and abominable works of man, should be pulled down and destroyed, there would be but one Lord, one faith, one heart, and one voice among mankind; and that these things would be put right by a spiritual influence proceeding from living witnesses, who, by the inspiration of the Spirit, should be sent forth as labourers into the harvest field.52.
Their prophetic warnings were continued (under much persecution) for several years, over the greater part of Europe. This revival extended to England, where it spread far and wide.
They believed that Jesus and his Apostles continually referred to the next or fourth and last, great cycle as the time for the restitution of all things, which God had spoken by the mouth of all his prophets (in all nations and cycles) since the world began.
It was at the spiritual acme of this cycle, that the Christ (whom John saw as a dove appear to Jesus) would come again, to some other individual. The second coming, so the Shakers claim, must of necessity have been to a woman, because the race is female as well as male.53
Further characteristics and doctrines of Jesus Christ
“Shaker” fashion are
- Christ was the “Author and Finisher of the faith” of Christianity; and in Jesus Christ was the first Christian Church, which was perfect and prolific spiritually just so far as Adam was perfect and prolific naturally, before Eve was brought forth.
- Christ (dual) is a super-mundane being, and was the Agent of the new revelation to Jesus, the truths of which were, first, the immortality of the soul, which Moses never taught; and second, the resurrection of the soul these being two distinct things; the former, the continuous existence of the soul after mere physical death; the latter, the quickening of the germ of a new and spiritual life in the soul, consequent upon, and succeeding to, the death of the first Adamic or generative life, which can only be effected by the faith and the cross of the second Adam – Christ.
- As all the future powers and faculties of the natural man are germinal in the infant and so the life and faculties of the future spiritual man are germinated in the soul of the natural or “old man”; and that these are never quickened, except by the same power that destroys the life of the “old man” – the desire of generation. “I wound, and I heal; I kill, and I make alive.” These are the two lives that Jesus alluded to when he said’ “Whosoever will save his life shall lose it; and whosoever will lose his life for my sake shall find it, and keep it unto life eternal.”54.
There are many hundreds of bizarre beliefs and doctrines attached to the “Shaker” movement. Hundreds of pages on the doctrine of the Lord’s Supper alone and alien to us as Christians. This movement was used to justify falling backwards, shaking, crying and much else not written in the Word.
“The Character, History and End of the Fool”
I believe that it was important to weigh the merits of the truths taught by these revival leaders and the methods by which the movements, once begun, were carried from one region to another.
I considered the Pastor of Grace Christian Fellowship who declared he was going to take the Holy Spirit to other churches in the city to be one of the worst offenders in promoting apostasy.
The increase of excitement were characteristically marked by a “fervid, impressive manner of preaching.”
One of these, Rev. William McGee, it is related that
“He would sometimes exhort after the sermon, standing on the floor, or sitting, or lying in the dust, his eyes streaming, and his heart so full that he could only ejaculate; “Jesus, Jesus!”55.
The terrors of hell were described in a peculiarly realistic manner. An extract from one of his sermons on the text: “The fool has said in his heart, there is no God,” well illustrates this:-
“He died, accursed of God, when his soul was separated from his body, and the black flaming vultures of hell began to encircle him on every side. Then all the horrid crimes of his past life started him in his face in all their glowing colors; then the remembrance of misimproved sermons and sacramental occasion flashed like streams of forked lightening through his tortured soul; then the reflection, that he had slighted the mercy and blood of the Son of God – that he had depised and rejected him – was like a poisoned arrow piercing his heart.
When the fiends of hell dragged him into the eternal gulf, he roared and screamed like the devil.
When, while Indians, Pagans, and Mohammedans stood amazed and upbraided him, falling like Lucifier, from the meridian blaze of the Gospel and the threshold of heaven, sinking into the liquid, boiling waves of hell, and accursed sinners of Tyre and Sidon and Sodom and Gomorrah sprang to the right and left and made way for him to pass them, and fall lower down, even to the deepest cavern, in the flaming abyss. Here his consciousness, like a never-dying worm, stings him, and forever gnaws his soul; and the slighted blood of the Son of God, communicates ten thousand hells in one!
Now through the blazing flames of hell he sees that heaven he has lost – that exceeding great and eternal weight of glory he has sold for the devil’s pottage! In those pure regions he sees his father, or mother, his sisters, or brothers, or those persons who sat under the same means of grace with him, and whom he derided as fools, fanatics, and hypocrites.
They are far beyond the impassable gulf; they shine brighter than the sun when he shineth in his strength and walk the golden streets of Jerusalem; but he is lost and damned forever.
The last thing we shall mention in the history of the fool, is when he lifted his eyes in hell, he found a dictionary, explaining the meaning of all the profane language he used during his life. Now he perfectly understands the meaning of those words he was in the habit of using in this world without ever reflecting on their significance.
Such expressions as the following were very common with the fool in this life: “I’ll be damned, God damn his soul, if it were not so.” Now the fool perfectly understands the meaning of these terms in all their horrid emphasis – for God has heard and answered his prayer: He has damned his soul in hell.
He could now tell you that the dreadful meaning of these words frighted the stoutest devils, and fills all the flaming vaults of hell with the most hideous shrieks and yells. In this life when the fool was offended with any one, his common phrase was, such a one is a damned fool. Now he perfectly understands the meaning of that phrase.
When he surveys his life and reflects on the many offers of salvation he refused; the manner in which he mis- spent his precious time, and mis-improved all the means of grace; he is constrained to confess: “he is emphatically a fool – a damned fool” – for he is damned in hell forever and ever.”56.
The resulting agitation and distress was well documented.
The scene at night, set amid the blazing camp-fires among the trees, which cast weird shadows among the crowd; the agonised sufferer, the prostrate bodies, intermittently calling out for mercy and acknowledging their unworthiness before God is not hard to picture and the medley of sounds upon the ear was “truly awful.”
It seems that it was quite a common event in these times and it is documented that 10,000 souls were converted on the spot. I tell you reading all this wonderful stuff just blew me away. What wimps we have as preachers today and we ourselves are so lifeless we are corpses by comparison.
The method of camping on the ground at the large meetings was noticeably adopted as a means of stimulating “revival fire”. Reverend McGee used many sermons in this particular form.
Shortly after the beginning of the Great Revival a “new exercise” appeared:-
“The “jerks” proved to be most contagious, and the mere suggestion of them was sufficient to animate an entire congregation with this peculiar exercise. A Presbyterian clergyman, hearing that the neighbouring congregation was afflicted with the exercise, went to remonstrate with them. he was seized himself whilst addressing them, and upon returning home communicated the malady to his own people which had assembled to hear the report of his visit. Another clergyman of the same denomination, a graduate of Princetown who had settled in Tennessee, would be seized in the pulpit, shout hallo, jump down and run to the woods. After an interval he would return as calm and rational as ever.”57.
On the other hand I had to consider the fact that the imagery and energy used by the preacher to illustrate the theme, devoid of our Saviour’s love and compassion for mankind brought about excessive emotional responses that did not necessarily mean that people were saved. Most assuredly this form of preaching would have a severe effect upon the autonomic nervous system.
Neither did the speaker really provide a correct understanding of the doctrine of salvation He did not preach that our salvation rests solely on our faith and by God’s grace and the gospel by which we are saved and in which we must believe is 1 Corinthians 15: 1-4 plus nothing.
I do have some trouble accepting the legitimacy of his message to bring the unsaved to Christ. It is not always an extreme emotional response that ensures that a person is converted rather it is necessary to know a person understands the simplicity of the gospel message and chooses to follow Jesus. Neither is it a case of saying sorry to God. It involves a change of our minds. Choosing to believe and by the gift of faith accept the gospel as absolute truth. (1 Corinthians 15:1-4) Once having chosen to accept Jesus Christ and His work of atonement on the cross, His death and bodily resurrection, a heart change/mind change occurs simultaneously (chiastic action) and the natural man is changed to a spiritual man – born again..
It is important to ensure that we present the gospel satisfactorily and that those who respond to the message have been converted by understanding the correct gospel message. This should be without the addition of “works” and this includes repentance from unbelief. It may be that a new believer can see their sin in startling clarity before a Holy God and this being most desirable. However it remains that this is still not a requirement to bring about a re-created heart (born again) for our repentance of our unbelief is a work we must choose to do by faith through the grace of God. Part of the ongoing work is our sanctification. Then is the necessity to recognise our sin and to bring this before the Lord. However this is not a prerequisite to ensure salvation.
Today we could well do with preachers who will describe with graphic passion the final destination of those who refuse to believe in the birth, death and resurrection of Jesus Christ as an atonement for sin. Such preaching would I pray have a life-changing effect on comfortable, well-heeled church adherents who are religious yet remain unsaved.
Peter Cartwright in his biography, tells of a crowd of drunken rowdies that came to break up a religious service:-
“The leader a stout man, cursed the jerks and all religion and, as so often happened fell himself a victim. He tried to run, but jerked so powerfully that he could not get away. Finally, he expired after a particularly violent jerk which broke his neck. As with the falling exercise, any time and place were favourable to the jerks and many avoided serious thoughts and refused to attend meetings, so easily was an attack brought on.
On one occasion, just after a sermon, a lively tune was suddenly started by someone in the audience. A young woman began to whirl around like a top. She continued for an hour without stopping, whirling at the rate of fifty times a minute, complaining of pain or distress when the singing stopped. She had been subject to the jerks for years. Sometimes the exercise was so severe that life was endangered”.
Closely connected with the jerks was an exercise called barking. A minister stated:
“it was common to hear people barking like a flock of spaniels on their way to the meeting. There they would start up suddenly in a fit of barking, rush around, roam around, and in a short time come barking and foaming back. Down on all fours they went, growling, snapping their teeth, and barking just like dogs.
One young woman at Salaam in 1802, having fallen, lay a great while, then, jumping up, cried, as if distracted, that others hindered her from serving God. For some time, she pranced over benches, then fell and lay prostrate as in a syncope.”58.
*Syncope – temporary loss of consciousness due to cerebral amnesia associated with severe disturbance of the circulation.59.
In the days of Colonialism the preaching of Whitefield, Edwards and people called the Tennents, exacted similar excitement throughout America, albeit in a less marked degree.
There were differences of opinion regarding the exercises. Many doubted their appropriate effect or that they were a direct manifestation of the power of God.
Superstition abounded among the settlers and therefore impressions of the work being supernatural, was firmly lodged in the minds of many, and the leaders of the various movements did all they could to promote that.
It is said that the resultant confusion was indescribable, churches were divided, and many were forced to worship elsewhere.
It was discovered that children reacted almost immediately to suggestion. A morbid tendency to self-examination was induced by the disheartened doctrinal preaching of impassioned men.
“Their desire, as soon as they take the bodily exercises, for instruction and the means of grace led to protracted meetings and the loss of interest save for one topic. Their minds became overbalanced and unlooked for discharge of emotion would follow…… The inflection of the voice was sufficient to start the meetings….. this same man relates that a pious woman ….was instantly set jerking by a change in the nature of their conversation…. she had previously been a subject of the exercises.”60
*See Understanding Hypnosis
“A temporary condition of altered attention in the subject which may be induced by another person and in which a variety of phenomena may appear spontaneously or in response to verbal or other stimuli. These phenomena include alterations in consciousness and memory, increased susceptibility to suggestion, and the production in the subject of responses and ideas unfamiliar to him in his usual state of mind… Further, phenomena such as anaesthesia, paralysis and rigidity of muscles, and vasomotor changes can be produced and removed in the hypnotic state.”61.
It is evident that the “pious women” referred to above were affected by “abreaction” where unwanted traces of the influence of hypnotic response had not been removed by controlled revival.
This is a clear demonstration where hypnosis whether innocently or scrupulously applied, can be exceedingly dangerous, for it can become out of control in the hands of inexperienced persons.
“Catalepsy”, such as that performed by Rasputin, is a typical example of ideomotor activity.
* The World Book Encyclopedia provides a description of ideomotor as follows:
“of or denoting automatic muscular movements arising from complete occupation of the mind by an idea or cerebral centers controlling such movements. Propaganda operates on the principle of the ideomotor suggestibility of persons.”62.
The activities of a prominent evangelist of those times and taken from “A dissertation upon extraordinary awakenings , or religious stirs conversion (microform) 1816.”
It is recorded that a Mr Whitefield, was well remembered, and others, who were his contemporaries itinerated throughout a number of towns throughout the New England States.
There were extraordinary “stirs” at that time and yet the general consensus of opinion held at that time, by varied writers, who admitted “that there were but few who will not admit that these excitements were probably more the effect of the novel manner in which they proceeded, the extraordinary way in which they manifested, and their pointed addresses to the feelings and passions than to any new and unconscious operations of the Spirit which attended their administrations.” 63.
Further, it was stated
“Those who are acquainted with the exercises and operations of the human mind know that it is very susceptible of impressions from various causes and circumstances.
The means of young people in particular are very easily wrought upon especially by anything which appears new or singular. Whether it be new in itself or only new in the manner in which it is exhibited to them; it excites their curiosity and arrests their attention.
Hence, the very different effect which the same sermon will have upon the same congregation when only read in a plain and distinct manner, and whether delivered to them with suitable gestures, an engaging countenance and commanding eloquence.
The power of suggestibility upon the mind is made greater than many are aware, in as much, that in many instances we almost imperceptibly invite the feelings and imitate.
I have already noticed the power of sympathy, and it is in no case perhaps more evident than not, that the fear aspect upon the minds of young persons is evident. When they see one of their acquaintances or friends or even a stranger whose mind is agitated by fear and terror the same emotions are almost irresistibly placed in themselves in trembling and in tears. And they know not why.
Now such emotions are not the result of rational conviction, or genuine repentance which should arise from a sense of the Divine Goodness of God and of our vileness and ingratitude.”64.
It was an exceedingly enlightening to consider religious revivals among the North American Indians, the Shakers and the ghost-dance revivals.
I have made selected quotations that may be of interest from “Primitive Traits in Religious Revivals: a study in mental and social evolution.” Published 1905 by Davenport, Frederick Morgan (1866-1956).
This literature described at considerable length the mixture of Christianity and savagery, and the experiences that emanated from that mix.
There was no indication that there was any significant preaching of the word of God. In fact the indication is that it spread more easily among the ignorant. Further, it is said that it spread by imitation. Suggestibility played a vital role in its spread across the eastern states of America. It was described as “naked hypnosis.”
It will no doubt be interesting to many to learn that the primitive “red wards” of the nation are very modern in their religious differentiation. Millerism flourished among the Cherokees of Alabama and Georgia some time before it appeared among the white people in the state of New York and elsewhere.
Early in the last century many members of that tribe expecting the end of the world, left their bees, their orchards and all that they possessed and made for the mountains of Carolina; among the highest summits of which their original founder, William Miller, told them they must be on a certain day to escape destruction.
As late as l890, something very like spiritualism was in a state of active existence among the Arapaho and Cheyenne. Many members of the tribe professed to have been in heaven where they talked with their dead friends, then came back and brought messages from the other world. Among these were the Shakers of Puget Sound. Their “faith-cure doctrine” flourished like a green bay tree.
Their cure for disease consisted of members of the cult “shaking in a circle about a sick person. They were dressed in ceremonial costume.
The religious practitioner waved a cloth in front of the patient “with a gentle, fanning motion, and blowing at the same time, proceeded to drive the disease out of the body, beginning at the feet and working upwards.….. And they are able to boast of many real cures.65.
The Shakers of Puget Sound were a combination of superstition and ethical religion. Their greatest contribution was a vigorous onslaught against drinking and gambling.
There was considerable evidence that the ghost-dance religion of the Indians of America was initiated into the “newer hypnotic mysteries” of the Shakers.
The ghost dance was sacred and took the form of a camp-meeting. There is a description of such provided by a “teacher” of those times. Held at a place known as White Clay Creek , June 20 1890 it is described as follows:-
“Three hundred tents were placed in a circle around a large pine tree. In the centre were gathered the medicine-men, also those who had been so fortunate as to have had visions and in them had seen and talked with friends who had once died.
A company of fifteen started a chant and were marching abreast, others coming in behind as they marched.
The crowds numbered about three or four thousand persons, setting up the most fearful and heart-piercing wails, moaning , shrieking, naming over their departed relatives and friends, raising their eyes to heaven with hands clasped high above their heads, invoking the power of the Great Spirit to allow them to see and talk with their people who had died.
After another fifteen minutes all sat down and listened to another address of encouragement and assurance of the coming Messiah.
When they arose again there was intense excitement. This time they danced more rapidly, their hands moving from side to side, their bodies swaying.
In the ring were men, women and children, the strong and the robust, and some who were in poor health who it was thought could be cured by joining in the dance and losing consciousness.
Under the power of the emotion, and of the hypnotic method employed by the medicine men, of which more will be said later, first one then the other would break from the ring and fall down.
Some would appear conscious but with every muscle twitching and quivering; some appeared to be perfectly unconscious, some would run, stepping high and pawing the air in a frightful manner.
Those who fell were never disturbed, and no notice was taken of them save to keep the crowd away. They were supposed to be enjoying a season of refreshing in the spirit world.
The dance was kept up until fully one hundred persons out of the three or four hundred who took part were absolutely unconscious. Then they stopped and seated themselves in circle, and as each one recovered from his trance, he was brought to the centre of the ring to relate his experience.
These phenomena have been common in several of the great revivals in the civilised white population, and many examples of pretence have been ferreted out in them all – notably Charles Wesley, in the cases which resulted from his brother’s preaching.
While we are speaking of this matter, it is worthy of note that not all the leaders in the ghost dance have this power of influencing suggestibles in the same measure.
And so it comes about that a process of selection of medicine-men takes place. Any man or woman who has been in a trance and derived inspiration from the other world is at liberty to go within the circle and endeavour to bring others into that condition. Superior ability selects the religious elders as in the old days it selected the military leaders.”66.
This description is an exact replica of the methods employed by those seeking to pass on “the blessing” of religious experience. By passing on the power received to others. This wicked strategy was significantly employed to “get at the Pastors first”.
There is a description provided of an older man, sixty-seven years of age, known favourably by the “dwellers all over the mountains” who was recounting, in a considerable state of ecstasy, the nature of his spiritual experience. Then suddenly, when interrupted by his dog, shocked those present with the “dash of savagery that came into his face, as he turned with flashing eye and foaming lip upon the canine interloper.”67.
The startling transition from religious culture and its nurture to undisguised rage at the diversion from the recounting of “his experience” was so notable as to be recorded.
This response particularly interested me, for in making even gentle attempts to inquire of people as to the effects of their experience, the response has invariably been one of anger.
On one very memorable occasion the person questioned (who had laid extravagant claims to having received healing, transformation and joy) very quickly collapsed into undisguised fury as she poured abuse into my ear down my telephone line. In meetings, wherever the reading and preaching of the meat of the word of God is attended to in an attitude of sacrifice to God; and where prayerful and needy souls, ever mindful of their sinful state, have entered in, to be changed and further renewed by the Spirit of God; I shall not undertake to determine, that it may be correct to assume, that there were valuable effects upon the minds and hearts of those present, or in the instances produced by them.
On the contrary, I hope that at these times and under those extraordinary phenomenon impressions have made on the minds of some individuals which were and are today, genuine and permanent. God can bring order out of confusion.
Nonetheless, whatever the means employed in meetings where people have gone to receive “a blessing of refreshment and joy”; it is very evident, that people have opened themselves up to spirits of deception, hypnosis, dumbness and witchcraft.
I hope that those who may read this book have an understanding of “deliverance” and the significance of repentance and renunciation of their involvement in the name of Jesus Christ.
One of the most uplifting and encouraging books to study has been, “When he is Come” by Eifion Evans”, who said that each Revival had its own characteristic and that together, they served to justify, for that time, the name given to Wales as being “the land of revivals.”
Revivals there exhibited the most powerful influences of the Holy Spirit resulting in the spiritual rebirth of many of the famous preachers we know of and this was due to the move of the Holy Spirit in those times.
There were many men in those days deserving of mention, Robert Roberts, Ebenezer Morris, and John Elias (1785 and 1786) Daniel Rowland (1781) and Richard Tibbot to name but a few, and people of all ages felt the power of Divine Grace, and its effects were remained for some considerable time.
It was claimed that:
“No one remembers seeing anywhere a more powerful owning of the means of grace than was experienced in this locality, and in many other places. The convictions were more powerful to awaken the conscience, smiting the heart, and the outbursts of the joy of salvation more powerful than were seen in some previous revivals.
And we know that there has been nothing comparable in power after it. This revival is considered to be the most powerful ever experienced in Wales, unless it was the Methodist Revival in its first phases.”68.
The observation was made that true religion had been at a low ebb at Beddgelert for some time before 1817.
“A barrenness was felt in the means of grace, older Christians were indifferent, and the young people were worldly, and superficial in spiritual things…. The Spirit of prayer soon characterised the church members as well as the children and it was not long before strong convictions were felt throughout the locality and God’s people were able to rejoice in their Saviour… Further demonstrations of the Spirit’s power were evident in the means of grace during the succeeding weeks until the most powerful influences were felt and the work spread abroad rapidly. Some thousand were added to the church.”69.
An unusual phenomenon in this revival was the “singing in the air” which many reliable witnesses had heard. The sound of sweetly angelic voices, sweetly and softly joined in harmony, without any apparent melody, was overpowering.
One outstanding characteristic of the Beddgelert Revival, North Wales, was that the preaching of the gospel had a prominent, indeed a predominant, place in it.
There was an “extra-ordinary manifestation of Divine favour” during the winter of 1857:-
“Before separating from the church meeting, our beloved minister administered the sacrament of the Lord’s Supper…..And in reading the word of God, and making a few passing remarks thereon, an influence was felt by all present, which we had never experienced in the like manner before.
There was a beauty, a loveliness about the Holy word which we have never hitherto perceived. New light seemed to be thrown upon it. It electrified us, and caused us to weep with joy. The feeling became general. All present were under its influence. The hardest hearts were forced to succumb.
After some time we partook of the ordinance of the Lord’s Supper, but under strange emotions.
And then we sang, sang with spirit, and repeated the hymn again and again – we could not leave off. Every heart seemed inspired to continue, and the last two lines were sung for a full quarter of an hour.
Then the minister prayed and such a prayer we had never before heard uttered. We felt we were communing with God… at length the prayer terminated and we were to separate but everyone kept his seat and kept silence; and there we were for a length of time under the most heavenly feelings…
At length the minister rose and slowly and pathetically read several appropriate portions of the word of God. We then sang and afterwards prayed again. And thus the meeting was carried on for four hours.
Such deep spiritual experiences and such strong impressions were bound to influence not only the lives of those present: ….The effects were not transient. They have left a deep impression on our minds, and have influenced our conduct for good.”70.
As to the means to secure a revival, the following were noted:
“…..self-examination, repentance for sin, a vital faith in God’s plan to save sinners and in his willingness to do so, persistent and importunate prayer for an outpouring of the Spirit, education in the truths of the Bible, direct effort by other Christians to bring others under the influence of the gospel, the faithful and practical teaching of the truth; together with complete dependence on the sovereignty of free grace for every success.”71.
The prayer meetings became a scene of some remarkable happenings: the older members who had fallen away came forward to make their confession of faith and these numbers increased, zealous converts continued and together with the older people they continued to serve God and his Church. Here is a description of the prayer meetings at that time:
“In the united services, the power of the Holy Spirit was being felt with gradually increasing intensity. It was in its terrors that the eternal became a reality to them first. They seemed plunged into the depths of godly sorrow.
For some weeks it was the voice of weeping and the sound of mourning that was heard in the meetings. The house was so full of the divine presence that ungodly men trembled terror stricken: and other times sat glued to their seats, ashamed and afraid to pass out in the presence of the church. Some, in their agitation would leave their hats behind; and this ere long came to be interpreted as an indication that their owners would be the converts at the next service.
After finding their way out, they would return, fascinated, in knots to the doors and windows, pushing them slightly ajar to get another glimpse of the strange scene that they had quitted.
When the church members came out at last, like guilty creatures they would all retreat into the shadows, excepting some who would be too sorely wounded to flee.
Stalwart fellows from the mountains would moan as if crushed beneath stupendous burdens or pierced with swords. Some would weep as if their hearts were breaking, others fall into ecstatic swoons. Waves of power overwhelmed them, and most extraordinary physical effects accompanied their impact.
Many leaped and danced in the exuberance of their rapture. The Lord made their feet like hinds’ feet, and made them walk in high places.
When the breeze blew strong from the eternal hills, the established formalities and proprieties of a religious service were cast to the winds; all the Lord’s people became prophets, and the ordinary barriers of diffidence and reticence having been swept away, began to speak, sing or pray as the Spirit gave them utterance.”71.
It was in this way the revivalists began their work together and the tenor of the Welsh Revivals were uniform in their form and substance.
However, with the advent of the New Age Movement and the myriad of its evidences, together with some understanding of hypnosis, it is vital to consider the effects of the current phenomena rationally and biblically.
It is clear that hypnotic influence was present then and is today, promoted in innocence, receivers believing it to be a work of the Holy Spirit of God.
People have attended meetings seeking to “receive” relying on leaders to pass on a “blessing” then influenced by auto-suggestion. A process by which a person accepts a proposition that is put to him or her by someone else, without subjecting it to critical analysis and the extent to which they will react to the suggestions.
The power of suggestion in hypnosis is enormously enhanced when it acts on the unconscious rather than the conscious mind. Suggestions being more readily accepted in the waking state are acted on more powerfully than would be possible under normal conditions.
How many have truly sought, on their knees to hear God’s direction as to what he wants for their lives at this particular time? How many study His Word and follow a sound teacher, study sound doctrine and seek after the truth. If they knew the Word they would not enter into any experience that is extra-biblical.
He has His way, in the whirlwind and the storm. The motivation of a hearts which seek to know all the essential and sound dictates of true Christianity surely the Lord will pour out his sweet rains of heaven upon us, and we may see lost lambkins come into the fold.
May it be we will see such gracious influences of His Spirit and the lost will come in their thousands, hardened hearts will be softened, healing will come to the broken-hearted, burdens will be lifted from the heavy-laden but first and of prime importance, is that our heart attitudes are changed with an urgent desire to study the Word.
We must thirst for His Word, and know it, and love it, and pray to have it quickened to us as never before in our lives. We will then love Jesus in a way we have never done before and be prepared to stand up for Him whatever the circumstances. We must encourage one another to be soldiers of the cross, with a heart to seek and to serve him, for we have already been blessed with every spiritual blessing.
I believe in the influence of the Holy Spirit and that this influence is necessary to salvation. I believe that regeneration, conversion and renovation are necessary and that these are only effected by a move of the Holy Spirit upon the heart of those who seek after God. The content of the Gospel must be believed (1Corinthians 15:1-4)
Any preacher who is unable to teach this truth and endorse extra biblical phenomena which cannot stand against the truth within the Bible is not worth a light.
The absolute and unpalatable truth is that it has been obvious from all the evidences provided within this work that where terrible fear is present, or suggestibility, or people are selected to “pass on” a blessing, told not to pray and not to use your mind; the emotional reactions are such that people may vomit, shake, scream, cry, experience sexual arousal and a breakdown of their inhibitions and other manifestations that are not God-honouring and not found in the Bible.
We have been encouraged to believe that the extraordinary and irresistible influences are given to a certain number, namely the elect, and that only the ordinary influences are given to others. What wicked division this creates.
Neither is any warrant or direction in Scripture laid down and therefore unnecessary to expect people to stand publicly and be further considered to establish any legality to be members of the church. Nor is their any assent required to an instrument, called a covenant requiring endorsement of signature that would state they are members of a church. Nor even does partaking in communion, even though it may be the heartfelt desire of a Christian and a privilege they enjoy ensure they are members of the invisible church.
The only Scriptural mode of initiation into the Christian church is, beyond all controversy, the necessity, to be born again of God’s Holy Spirit through heartfelt repentance of unbelief in the Gospel.
We are accountable before God to believe in Christ’s atonement for our sin and that through faith by God’s grace. We are not saved by our own works of service or recognition by any Pastor or leader, or by entering in and supping of an “approved blessing.”
Holy Scripture says: “It is only by the name of Jesus that men must be saved.” The offering that Christ made once and for all and that is the redemption, propitiation and satisfaction for all the sins of the world and there is no other satisfaction for sin, save Him alone.
So it is, under adverse circumstances, the Church has gradually and sometimes rapidly increased; so that from a very little one, she has become many thousands. The fiery zeal with which it has been assailed, has not consumed this humble bush, because God is in the midst of it. Its roots are still moistened with the dews of heaven; and its spreading branches, covered with the leaves of charity and virtue, invite the disordered nations to come and repose under their healing influence.
These are the operations that are properly attributed to the Spirit of God, who works with us, both to will and to do. This change of heart is neither instantaneous, nor irresistible. It is gradual and progressive. The heart and mind being changed more and more into the Divine image. The response of the understanding increasing more and more by degrees of illumination by God’s word in Scripture.
Under the Mosaic dispensation, particular persons were especially appointed as priests to offer up sacrifices to lead the devotions of the people. That the Christian church is established under similar rules and regulations must, I think, be evident to even the most casual observer.
Let us then, consider the story of the humble priest, who when found alone, with not one member of his church present, he continued on, untroubled, in humble adoration offering up a sacrifice of prayer and preaching to his Lord in an act of reverence and love.72.
Whilst the Gospel was yet in its infancy and before Christianity was established in the world, the operations of the Holy Spirit were frequently extraordinary and miraculous. As the necessities of the church became less urgent, this appears to have lessened. It may be that today, God will not move in as urgent, or as vital a way as he did in that church so long ago. I do not believe the age of miracles is past we are still in the Church Age and miracles were present at the beginnings of the Church Age. I do not believe that these were merely historical events for that time. Nor do I believe that tongues have ceased but I definitely do not believe that everyone speaks in tongues nor should they be expected to do so. The gibberish that is spoken in Pentecostal churches is just that and the true gifting of tongues is for a minority not the majority. The Holy Spirit, in His ordinary influences, is still graciously given to reprove the world of sin, of righteousness and of judgement – to enlighten and renew; to sanctify the souls of believers and to strengthen, support and comfort them as their circumstances require.
The Holy Spirit operates upon all men with his gracious and irresistible influence, and with sufficiency of energy to bring them to repentance and salvation, assuring us, that unless we turn away from our sin of ambition and pride and become like little children in our acceptance of Jesus as our Lord we will never see the kingdom of Heaven.
The application of water to the outer and of the Spirit to the inner man, is vital to our cleansing and wholeness. Yet water baptism alone, would not bring about spiritual regeneration. However, where baptism would be duly administered and accompanied by the influences of the Spirit must believe would not be withheld, prayerfully entered into, is a vital and energising start to our Christian walk.
Baptism is a sacrament of the New Testament, ordained by Jesus Christ, to be, to the person baptised, a sign and seal of his engrafting into Christ; of regeneration; of remission of sins and of his giving up to God to walk in newness of life. It is an ordinance, by Christ’s own appointment, to be continued in the Church until Jesus appears in the atmospheric heavens and Believers are taken out of the way before the wrath to come.
(Psalm 1) “Blessed is the man who does not walk in the counsel of the wicked or stand in the way of sinners or sit in the seat of mockers but his delight is in the Lord, and on his law he meditates day and night. he is like a tree planted by streams of water, which yields its fruit in season and whose leaf does not wither. Whatever he does prospers.”
(Titus 3: 5) “ But when the kindness and the love of God our Saviour appeared, he saved us, not because of the righteous things we had done, but because of his mercy. he saved us through the washing of rebirth and renewal by the Holy Spirit, whom he poured out on us generously through Jesus Christ our Saviour, so that, having been justified by his grace, we might become heirs having the hope of eternal life.”
The seeds, principles and practices of spiritual life are implanted in the soul at the point of regeneration. Our regenerated Spirit longs to feed on God’s Holy Spirit given Word which our minds are renewed by, turned away from our worldly value system, brought into conformity with God’s plan and purpose for our lives. We are washed, renewed and strengthened by the persistent, gentle, influence of the Holy Spirit. As the Apostle expresses it in (Ephesians 4: 22-23) and see Ariel Ministries Ariel.org. 33 Things of Positional truth for you received all the evidences of your position IN HIM at the moment you believed and received the gift of the Holy Spirit.
“You were taught, with regard to your former way of life, to put off your old self, which is being corrupted by its deceitful desires, to be made new in the attitude of your minds, and to put on the new self, created to be in the likeness of God in true righteousness and holiness.”
The preaching of the gospels by the Apostles had certainly the authority of a divine command. The ministers of the gospel today, are inspired in the manner that the Apostles of old were, by the Holy Spirit of God and yet this can only be made possible where they speak out the truth of God’s Holy Scripture.
Being men, they are frail, and liable to error. Yet their discourses, where they profess foundation on the Word of God ought to be listened to with reverence, and examined with candour. Like the Bereans of old, the hearer should search the Scripture daily that they may be better able to judge the correctness of that which has been preached to him.
True Christianity invites inquiry and investigation. The more candidly investigated the more rational, important and desirable it seems. Every man of God who knows and loves the Word will ever be open to questioning minds and eagerly delight in providing his interpretation as the Word has been quickened to him.
We are not to expect any new revelations outside of the Bible. Holy Scripture contains everything necessary for us to know, believe and practise. Any doctrine that stands apart from the word of God should have no infallible claim to our assent. It will follow, of course, that any doctrine, which is clearly revealed in the Scripture, ought to be believed and received as being true.
I earnestly pray that God would be pleased to give to all of us, an increase of his grace to hear the word, to love it, and revere it with our whole hearts. I also pray, to bring forth the fruits of his Spirit and that it may please him to guide us into the way of truth.
For me, let my zeal be for the cause of Christ Jesus, not in ignorance or enthusiasm, washed by trifling peculiarities, or that which displays itself in an ostentatious show of superior sanctity.
May it be that God would fill me with His love to be active and tender, temperate and rational, mild and charitable. That He will provide me with His ability to reach out to others. That He will so cleanse me from the foulness of all my sin the angels will look down with pleasure and with an approving smile pronounce me to be a good and faithful servant.
May it be that God will give me His blessings, by way of the comforting certainty of His love, and provide me with His strength to overcome all the works of the evil one, and that this would be so for all his struggling children.
Without the sympathetic influence of the Holy Spirit and the necessity of his Divine Grace this would be impossible. The provision to us of his Divine love, centred upon Jesus Christ, and then descending in just proportions to his household of faith, enabling us to truly love others; without this being the richest fruit of the Spirit – his heaven-born charity, “ we are but brass and a tinkling cymbal.”
40. TL Osborne – tape – Love Power.
41. Ibid. Life Application Bible.
43. Catharine Caroline Cleveland. The Great Revival in the West 1797-1805 Pub.1959(c1919).
44. David R. Collison with Timothy Hall. Understanding Hypnosis.
45. Religious experience research unit: The spiritual nature of man. Oxford, New York 1979.
50. Evans, Frederick William. Compendium of the origin, history, principles, rules and regulations, government and doctrines of the United Society of Believers in Christ’s second appearing. Pub. 1859NY1.Arthur S. Berger and Joyce Berger The Encyclopaedia of Parapsychology and Psychical Research.
52. Ibid. Compendium of the origin, history, principles, rules etc of the Shakers.
55. Ibid. The Great Revival in the West.
59. Ibid. Pears Encyclopaedic Dictionary.
60. Ibid. The Great Revival in the West.
61. Ibid. Understanding Hypnosis.
62. World Book Encyclopaedia.
63. A dissertation upon extraordinary awakenings, or religious stirs conversion (microform)1816.
68. Eifion Evans Publication date 1967. When he is come: an account of the 1858-60 revival in Wales.
72. Ken Chant. Better than Revival.